Notes on the Translation

     This translation is based on the Greek text of the 'Novum Testamentum Graece' by Nestle-Aland, 26th edition, Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft, Stuttgart. Although Greek is the language of the oldest surviving manuscripts of 'The Revelation', certain features of the grammar, idiom and vocabulary reflect a strong Semitic influence (from Hebrew or Aramaic).

     It is important to mention that, as far as possible, the original tenses of the Greek verbs have been kept in this translation. Therefore, apparently ungrammatical combinations of tenses, past, present or future, may be found in the same passage. This is inevitable: at a certain time in the past, the prophet is granted a vision of actions which appear to be present ('the prophetic present') but which, in reality, relate to events which are to be realized in the future.

     Words in italics in the translation represent additions to the original Greek text, made necessary by the differences between the Greek and the English idiom.

     The following notes offer information that may be useful to the reader, especially with unfamiliar terms. Also are included the literal translations of passages which have been rephrased for the sake of clarity, and explanations for the three occasions where words in parentheses are to be found in this translation.

'Book': in this translation the same Greek word is rendered in English by 'book' or 'scroll', depending on the context.
Literally: 'and repent and do the first deeds'.
Literally: 'a scroll written on the inside and on the back'.
Literally: 'a choenix of wheat for a denarius, and three choenices of barley for a denarius'.The choenix is a dry measure of capacity, which is approximately equal to one liter.The denarius was a Roman coin of silver, which was the average daily wage for hired labour (see St.Matthew's Gospel 20:1-16).
Literally: 'and the day did not shine the third of it and the night likewise'.
[In English: Destroyer] is included to help the reader.
As an exact number a myriad in Greek equals ten thousand; the number represented by 'two myriads of myriads' would therefore be two-hundred million.
[legs] is a suggestion based on the vision described (the same word is used in Hebrew for 'feet' and 'legs').
'the name of the beast or the number of his name': this refers to the number system called 'gematria', where each letter of the alphabet (of Hebrew or ancient Greek) has a numerical value, and the number for a word or name can be calculated by adding the value for each letter.
Literally: 'with everlasting good news to bring to those sitting on the earth'. Here 'those sitting on the earth' is a Semitism for those living or dwelling on the earth.
The stadium (plural: stadia) is a measure of distance equal to 185 meters.
Literally: 'Just are you, the One who is and who was, the Holy One'.
Literally: 'the way of the kings from the rising of the sun'.
The talent is a measure of weight which varied, at different times and places in the ancient world, from about 26 to 59 kilograms.
Literally: 'who have not yet received a kingdom'.
'For in her heart she says': this is a Semitic expression referring to what she is thinking to herself.
Literally: 'And every ship-master and everyone sailing to a place'
Literally: 'and he has avenged the blood of his servants at her hand'. This is a Semitic expression.
[standard] is a suggestion based on the vision described and the almost identical orthography of the words for 'standard' and 'leg' in Hebrew.
Stadia: see note on 14:20.
The cubit is the distance between the elbow and the tip of the middle finger of a man. Its precise length varied but was of the order of 18 inches, a little less than half-a-meter.
Literally: 'And the incrustation of her wall is jasper'.